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Input to is in the form of a text file. input files have a .tex extension. The logical structure of a document is imposed by typesetting commands. It is good practice to split your text into logical units, each stored in a separate file, (see Chapter ). Co-ordination is achieved through a root input file which specifies the document style and pulls in' the relevant text files. This document was produced with the following root file:

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\documentstyle[11pt,a4wide,twoside]{report}


\title{Document Preparation with \LaTeX}
\author{Edited by David Budgen \\ Department of Computing Science \\
University of Stirling}
\date{February 1990, Revised October 1990}

\begin{document}

\pagenumbering{roman}

\maketitle

\input{acks}
\tableofcontents

% The chapters as available

\include{intro}
\include{example}
\include{miniguide}
\include{documents}
\include{running}
\include{dvipsguide}
\include{previewer}
\include{graphics}
\include{hints}

\include{biblio}

\end{document}
1.3A detailed description of this file follows. Firstly, the command

\documentstyle[11pt,a4wide,twoside]{report}
specifies the basic format of the document - this effects the layout of your text on the page, the size of headers, etc. In general commands are prefixed by a \ (backslash) character. provides a number of standard styles such as report, article, and book. Here we opt for the standard report style (report). Additional style options are selected within [...] brackets. Here the 11pt option specifies the point size to be used throughout the document. A point is a measure of type size - 1pt is approximately of an inch. Other sizes are 10pt (the default) and 12pt. The a4wide option enlarges the printing area on the page to fit better on to A4-sized paper, while the twoside option organises page margins for two-sided printing. This last option would not be appropriate for a thesis. (For many purposes the a4wide option produces a page that is really too full and with text that occupies too wide a line. The a4 option may be much more suitable for articles, essays etc, although a4wide is probably more appropriate for the denser material of a dissertation!)

Comment lines begin with the % character, and are terminated by the end of a line. Comments are mostly useful in root' files such as this one, where they can be used to remind the author of items to be included later, or to exclude sections that have not yet been completed.

The commands used to specify these entities illustrate the notion of scope associated with certain commands known as declarations. Braces are used to delimit the scope of a declaration. For example, here is some emphasised text produced by the \em command. The associated input takes the form:


For example, here is some {\em emphasised text} produced by ...
The scope of a declaration can also be delimited by the \begin and \end commands. For instance, consider some more emphasised text'' which was produced by the following fragment of :

\begin{em}
some more emphasised text''
\end{em}
Such a construct is called an environment, the name of the environment is specified within braces. Note that the \em declaration corresponds to the em environment. Environments are best used where a large section of text is involved. The largest text environment is the complete document and is delimited as follows:

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\begin{document}
...
\end{document}
1.3The \pagestyle declaration controls the text printed in the header and footer regions of the page. The command \pagestyle{plain} generates an empty header and places the page number in the footer, whereas \pagestyle{empty} generates an empty header and footer. Roman and arabic numbering is achieved by the \pagenumbering declarations.

keeps track of various kinds of referencing information enabling the automatic generation of a table of contents by the \tableofcontents command. Similarly, lists of figures and tables can also be generated for free.

The \chapter{Introducing \LaTeX} \label{intro} \pagenumbering{arabic} \section{What is \LaTeX?} During the 1980's, one of the major changes that occurred in computing was the development of highly versatile output devices. Unlike earlier impact printers, the high-resolution matrix printers and laser printers are capable of printing a wide range of typefaces, fonts and sizes (these terms will be clarified later). \LaTeX\ is one of the software tools that has been developed to allow the user to take full advantage of the power of such printing devices. The popularity of {\em word processing} has led to the development of many software tools which are based upon {\em wysiwyg} techniques (what you see is what you get). While such systems can be excellent when used with fixed-pitch typewriter style printing forms, the results when used with mixed fonts and mixed typefaces are often far less impressive. This is largely because over the decades and centuries typesetters and compositors have developed a set of rules' which embody hard-won knowledge' about the effective use of such tools, and we have become used to seeing books and document laid out to these high standards. Another reason for the lack of perfect' {\em wysiwyg} packages is that while printer technology involving resolutions in hundreds of pixels per inch is standard, display screen technology is still limited to less than 100 pixels per inch, except in very specialised (and very expensive) areas. Thus, it is technologically impossible to achieve true {\em wysiwyg} effects, unless the effects required are very limited in scope (boxes-and-lines diagrams or fixed-width fonts, say). \LaTeX\ is based upon an entirely different philosophy to that of {\em wysiwyg} tools. The idea in \LaTeX\ is that the designer of a document should specify their layout requirement in an {\em abstract} manner, and that the program should then translate these into the necessary details of typeface, font and size, making use of a set of rules of style' that have been derived from type-setting experience. So the user of \LaTeX\ is concerned only with specifying the {\em logical} design of their document in terms of chapters, sections, lists etc, rather than being concerned with physical layout. The effect of this approach is that the document producer controls the appearance of the document indirectly, through a series of encodings which describe to the document processing package how the document should look. These descriptions take the form of ordinary text files produced with any ordinary text editor; indeed, the whole armoury of text-processing utilities may be used to attack' \LaTeX\ source files, which can lead to useful short cuts, as will be seen later. \section{How it works} \LaTeX\ is what is termed a mark up' language. The input to \LaTeX\ consists of the raw text of a document, interspersed with {\em directives} that indicate how each part of a document is to be processed. \LaTeX\ supplies a generous set of structures, as well as the means of adjusting some of their parameters where necessary. Overall, the effect is very like that of compiling a program. The output from \LaTeX\ is not immediately printable. While a number of files of information may be produced (the exact number depending upon the options selected), the main textual output is a {\em device-independent} file, usually given the extension {\tt .dvi}. This file needs to be further processed so that it can be displayed on a screen or printed on a particular printer. A wide range of programs to performs the translation are available. For example, tools are available to transform {\tt .dvi} files into line-printable output for cheap proof-reading purposes (highly recommended and environmentally sound), various different programs are available locally to preview output approximating the page display on a workstation screen (depending on the exact type of your workstation), and at least two programs are locally available to transform {\tt .dvi} file into PostScript\footnote{PostScript is an example of a {\em Page Description Language}, a shorthand method for describing the layout of every pixel on a printed page.} for output to a laser printer for fair copy'. \LaTeX\ is itself built upon Donald Knuth's \TeX\ typesetting language. \TeX\ is enormously powerful, but writing in \TeX\ is rather akin to writing programs in assembler---and is {\em not} recommended for the inexperienced. Because \LaTeX\ is implemented as a set of style macros for \TeX\, we occasionally become aware of its presence when errors occur, since some of the error messages may be generated from \TeX\ rather than from \LaTeX\@. Neither give particularly clear messages, but those from \TeX\ can be particularly obscure! \section{This document} The purpose of this document is to support the no frills' use of \LaTeX\ within the Department. The various chapters give basic guides to \LaTeX\ document commands, running the available tools, and organisation of a large document, such as a dissertation. It provides hints and guidelines and has been assembled from a wide range of sources. As a general point though, if you cannot find out how to obtain a particular effect with \LaTeX\ fairly easily, don't waste your time, simply find a different form of expression. \LaTeX\ discourages the production of output forms that are regarded as stylistically undesirable, and it is generally better to accept that in these matters \LaTeX\ knows best'. It is probably only too true! \section{Other tools} UNIX does provide some useful tools that can be used with any form of document preparation. In particular, everyone should know about the following ones. \begin{description} \item [wc] will count words and lines in a file. \item [spell] will check the spelling of words in a file and provide a list of errors. \end{description} We particularly recommend the use of the latter\ldots One other point ought to be mentioned here: laser printers are relatively slow and are expensive to run. Draft sections of a document need not be typeset simply for the purposes of proof-reading, and may simply be printed out on the standard line-printer. Please avoid laserprinting your output whenever possible. \section{Typography and other issues} \subsection{Typographic terms} Most of us use these very casually (and erroneously). As an instant guide to correct use of someone else's technical terms, we offer the list below. \begin{description} \item [typeface] is an abstract design idea for how letters are to be presented'. Examples of typefaces are Times New Roman, Helvetica and Baskerville. A typeface can be realised in various sizes and {\em fonts} (see below). \item [font] describes a particular aspect of a typeface, often in a particular size. Examples of fonts are {\bf bold}, roman, {\it italic}, {\sl slanted} and condensed. \item [point] is a printer's measure of size. A point can be taken as being approximately $1/72$ of an inch. Font size is measured in points; for example, this document is set in 11-point type. \item [serif] is a small lateral extension at the end of a stroke. These are found in various forms in many typefaces, and are considered to be an aid to faster reading of a document, since they help to create the imaginary line followed by the eye as a line of text is read. Most books (and this guide) are set in typefaces that have serifs. \end{description} For a fuller description of typographical terms, the book by Rubinstein described in the next section is particularly recommended. \subsection{Other reading} There is a short bibliography at the end of this document. The bible' of \LaTeX\ was written by Leslie Lamport, who was its creator \cite{lamport}. There is a copy in the library and various copies are owned by members of the Department (who are generally {\em very} reluctant to lend them out). It is not particularly well organised as a book, {\em but}, there is, at the time of writing, no alternative. For dissertation preparation these notes should suffice, although reference to Lamport's book may prove necessary on occasion. Anyone wanting to know more about digital type-setting, and about typography in general, should consult the book {\em Digital Typography} by Richard Rubinstein \cite{rubinstein}. This is a very interesting and well-written book that is saturated with useful references and gives lots of fascinating ideas. \TeX\ itself is thoroughly documented in the works by Donald Knuth, but these are {\sc not} recommended as suitable reading for the novice. command causes to include the file intro.tex. In this way the text of your document can be held in different files. In practice you will only work on one file (chapter) at a time. A mechanism to prevent the inclusion of particular files is therefore required. Two approaches are available. Firstly, as already mentioned, any line of the input file starting with a % symbol is ignored by . For instance, the following sequence of includes would result in only chapter2'' being included:

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.
.
.
1.3Alternatively, the \includeonly command enables you to specify within the preamble which of the include files should be processed. For instance, the inclusion of only chapter2'' can also be achieved by the following use of the \includeonly command:

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\includeonly{chapter2}
.
.
.
.
.
.`
1.3Finally, the \appendix command tells to treat the text which follows as appendices. This basically means that sectional units are labelled using letters.

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